All solutions from internet of things need a well thought architecture in order to work as a first step. Nevertheless, when it comes to reality, this brilliant idea seems to be too much complicated to be implemented, considering the amount of devices and necessary conditions to make it work. Essentially, the architecture of the Internet of things works thanks to numerous elements: sensors, protocols, in the Cloud services and layers. Considering its complexity, there are 4 stages for the implementation of IoT architecture.


Stage 1. Locating these “Things” in a network (wireless sensors and actuators).

An important feature from the sensors is its capacity to turn information from the outside world into data for its analysis. In other words, it is important to begin with the inclusion of sensors in the 4 stages of a frame for IoT architecture to obtain information that is processable. For the actuators, the process goes even further. These devices can take part of physical reality. For example, they can turn the light off and adjust the temperature of a room. Because of this, the stage of detection and activation covers and adjusts all which is necessary in the physical world. This occurs to obtain the necessary knowledge from a more detailed analysis.


Stage 2. Data and sensors aggregation systems and conversion of data from analogical to digital.

This stage of the IoT architecture still implies working close to the sensors and actuators. Data obtention systems appear here. Specially, these last ones are connected to the sensors network and are added to the output. While the gateways to Internet work with Wi-Fi, wireless LAN and perform an additional processing. It is vital in this stage to process large amounts of data collected from the previous stage. Then it must be compressed to its ideal size for future analysis. Also, the conversion in terms of time and structure occurs here. In summary, the stage 2 is responsible for the data digitalization and aggregation.


Stage 3. The emergence of the latest computer systems.

In this phase of the Internet of things architecture, the prepared data are sent to the IT world. In particular, the perimeter IT systems perform an analysis and preprocessing improved here. For example, it refers to automatic learning and visualization technologies. At the same time, it is possible that an additional process happens before the entrance to the data center stage.

The 3rd Stage is closely related to the previous phases of construction of an architecture of the internet of things. Because of this, the location of the IT systems is near the sensors and actuators location. This ends up in the creation of a closet of wiring.


Stage 4. Analysis, management and data storage

The main processes of the last stage of the architecture of IoT take place in the data center or in the Cloud. Precisely, it allows profound processing, together with a follow-up check for the feedback. Here, the OT and IT professional skills are needed. In other words, the phase needs high analytical skills, both in the digital and human world. Therefore, data from other sources can be included here to guarantee an in depth analysis.

After complying with all of the the quality standards and requirements, the information goes back to the physical world. This happens after it is processed and analyzed with precision.


Stage 5 of the architecture of Internet of things?

In fact, there is a possibility of extending the building process of a sustainable architecture of the IoT introducing an additional stage. It is to iniate the control of the user over the structure. The result on its own does not include the whole automation. The main tasks are visualization and management. After including the 5th stage, the system turns into a cyclical process. Here the user sends commands to the sensors; actuators to perform some actions. And the process starts again.

In simpler words, the architecture of IoT must contain elements from this structure:

  • Sensors for data collection and actuators to perform commands received from the Cloud.
  • Gateways. These are a filter that preprocesses and moves data into the Cloud.
  • Footbridges. These guarantee the data transmission between the footbridges and the central IoT servers.
  • information Processors in simultaneous. These serve to distribute data. The origin comes from sensors.
  • Data Lake to store all the information with definite and indefinite value.
  • A big warehouse of information to capture valuable data.
  • Control Apps to submit commands in connection with the actuators.
  • Learning Machine that generates models. These are used by the control apps.
  • User’s applications that allow users to monitor the control of their connected devices.
  • Data analysis for the manual processing of data.

It is important to be centered on convergence

The approach in 4 stages of the infrastructure and the processing of the IoT will need new levels of collaboration. If you are working with IT, get ready to collaborate closely with all the other levels. With the time, your work will converge when the IoT gets more profound on data processing.

IT professionals can develop their competences on IoT if they begin from a small scale and work with experts in this matter to identify potential valuable data sources. The IoT keeps on remodeling the commercial, industrial, scientific and engineering efforts in an incredible and unpredictable way. During the scientific revolution of the XVIIth century, the new inventions extended the scope of the human senses towards the microscopic and astronomical kingdoms. The IoT is the instrument that will allow an organization to connect intelligent technologies with the universe of objects that create data. The implications for the IT infrastructure will be wide.



Kumar Srivastava, 2018. CIO, “The 4 fundamental C’s of IoT architecture and design”, Recovered of

Smruti R. Sarangi, 2017. Hindawi, “Internet of Things: Architectures, Protocols, and Applications”, Recovered of

Forbes Insights, 2017. Forbes, “4 Reasons Why Architecting For Change Is Critical For IoT”, Recovered of

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